Eyema Bieri (Reliquary Guardian Figure)

Ngumba

By: Adenike Cosgrove Tagged:

Description

As a migratory people, the Fang have the custom of gathering the bones & skulls of deceased chiefs and important community members (together with magical substances) into cylindrical bark containers, instead of burying them in graves. Crowning the containers are figural sculptures, made from wood, believed to embody the guardian spirits of family ancestors held within the containers; "the physical embodiment of their ancestor’s vital force". These ancestor shrines are known as nsek bieri (also called nsek byeri) and the guardian figures protecting the shrines are known as bieri (also called eyema bieri, eyema-o-bieri or nlo bieri).

It is believed that these shrines allow the living to communicate with ancestors in the spirit realm through offerings made to the nsek-bieri shrines. Bieri figures are consulted before important tasks are undertaken and these figures are also used during the initiation of young men into the bieri cult.

NOTE: The Fang are a migratory people and as such styles change over time as specific groups are influenced by the styles of new regions.

Distinguishing Features

Common features among all bieri:

  • Made of wood
  • Figures represent ancestors as men (and women in some cases) in their prime combined with infantile features such as shortened limbs
  • Concave heart-shaped face
  • High bulging forehead
  • Deep eye sockets
  • Eyes can be cowrie shells or round metal discs
  • Sunken cheeks
  • Pouting mouth
  • Rigid, slender, projecting chin
  • Some male figures feature beard projection
  • Strong columnar neck
  • Head large in relation to body
  • Variety of hairstyles (waves of hair or caps which sweep outwards at the neck)
  • Distended belly with prominent navel
  • Bulbous arms and curvilinear legs (varying from very short to very long)
  • Arms resting upon long rounded body or on the thighs (or clasping a receptacle containing medicine)
  • Most full figures have a sticklike extension / plinth from buttocks (for insertion into bark cylinder on which bieri sits)
  • Some figures decorated with metallic bracelets, earrings & tacks

Regional variations (Ngumba sub-group / Southern Fang group):

  • Large spherical head
  • Large domed forehead
  • Concave face
  • Large circular or diamond-shaped eyes
  • Forward-projecting mouth
    • Oval or rectangular
    • Pursed lips (sometimes in an almost tubular shape)
    • Open teeth filled mouth
  • Short rectangular beard adorning the chin of the male figures
  • Powerful facial expression
  • Generally elongated proportions
    • Lengthened, slender, cylindrical torso
  • Well-shaped shoulders
  • Sinuous, muscular arms held away from body
    • Whistle (so) / horn held by male figures
    • Offering container held by females
  • Extensive use of brass attachments
    • In the eyes
    • On the face
    • On the body
    • As overlaid ornament (especially bracelets)
  • Dark brown and black surface (from palm oil and copal resin)


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