The Mahongwe sub-group of the Kota ethnic group have the custom of gathering the bones, skulls and other relics of deceased chiefs and important community members (together with magical substances) into woven rattan baskets; it is believed that the skull of a deceased chief holds his power even after his death. Crowning the containers are figural sculptures, made from wood and brass, believed to embody the guardian spirits of family ancestors held within the containers.
These ancestor shrines and guardian figures are known as boho na bwete (or bwiti meaning 'face of the bwete ancestor'; also called mbulu ngulu or mboy among the Kota from the Republic of Congo). It is believed that these shrines allow the living to communicate with ancestors in the spirit realm through offerings made to the bwete shrines. The practice of ancestor worship (also called bwete) ensures the protection and survival of the family group. Ancestors are also prayed to, through their bwete shrines, to help alleviate misfortune or sickness.
The figures are sometimes removed from shrines and used during annual Bwete festivals. When not in used, the figures and baskets of ancestor relics are usually kept in a small chamber at the back of the chief’s residence.
NOTE: It is believed that a large number of bwete figures in the market have been made for the tourist market due to the near eradication by missionaries, of the practice of creating these figures. Mahongwe bwete figures were all collected in the Makotou - Mekambo region in eastern Gabon.
Common features among all boho na bwete figures:
Regional variations (Mahongwe sub-group):